Multi-faith Spaces

Further Reading

Berlin and Bethlehem Chapels at Brandeis University

Online Resources

There are a number of resources available online on the topic of multi-faith spaces. We've included a number of them here for further investigation:

Spiritual Spaces Database

Spiritual Spaces

Karla Johnson and Alice T. Friedman have both worked with the Curator of Visual Resources at Wellesley College, Marci Hahn-Fabris, to create an online database of spiritual spaces on college and university campuses throughout the United States. The names of facilities, sizes, seating capacities, and dates of construction are just a few of the categories of data included for institutions. It is intended as a resource for both educational professionals and all those interested in learning more about these facilities.


  • Beckford, James A. "Doing Time: Space, Time Religious Diversity and the Sacred in Prisons." International Review of Sociology 11, 3 (2001): 371-82.
  • Beckford, James, and Sophie Gilliat-Ray. Religion in Prison: Equal Rites in a Multi- Faith Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
  • Belden, Sarah E., William U. Shipley, Jensie Shipley, Katie D. Binda, and Richard T. Penson. "Holistic Oncology: A Healing Garden Guest Book." The Oncologist 13, 7 (2008): 828.
  • Bender, Courtney. “Religion and Spirituality: History, Discourse, Measurement.” SSRC Forum (2007).
  • Brand, Ralf. "Case Study 4. Multi-Faith Spaces as Symptoms and Agents of Change." In Religion and Change in Modern Britain, edited by Linda Woodhead and Rebecca Catto, 219-24. New York: Routledge, 2012.
  • Breugmann, Robert. Modernism at Mid-Century: The Architecture of the United States Airforce Academy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994.
  • Britton, Karla. Constructing the Ineffable: Contemporary Sacred Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2011.
  • Cadge, Wendy. Paging God: Religion in the Halls of Medicine. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.
  • Cadge, Wendy and Elaine Howard Ecklund. “Immigration and Religion.” Annual Review of Sociology 33 (2007): 359-79.
  • Carroll, Bret E. "Worlds in Space: American Religious Pluralism in Geographic Perspective." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 80, 2 (2012): 304-64.
  • Chaves, Mark. American Religion: Contemporary Trends. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.
  • Chidester, David, and Edward T. Linenthal. American Sacred Space. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.
  • Clausen, Meredith. Spiritual Space: The Religious Architecture of Pietro Belluschi. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1988.
  • Creager, Ellen. "Prayer Rooms in Hospitals Acknowledge Power of Faith." Dayton Daily News, May 27, 2000, 4C.
  • Crosbie, Michael J. "The "S" Word." Faith & Form XLV, no. 1 (2012): 5.
  • Cully, Kendig. "Giving up Plan for Interfaith Chapel." Christian Century 66, 43 (1949): 1274.
  • Dannin, Robert. "Island in a Sea of Ignorance: Dimensions of the Prison Mosque." In Making Muslim Space in North America and Europe, edited by Barbara Daly Metcalf, 131-46. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996.
  • Demerath, N.J., Peter Dobkin Hall, et al., edited by Sacred Companies: Organizational Aspects of Religion and Religious Aspects of Organizations. New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Eck, Diana. A New Religious America: How a ‘Christian Country’ Has Become the World’s Most Religiously Diverse Nation. San Francisco: Harper, 2001.
  • Eliade, Mircea. The Sacred and the Profane: the Nature of Religion. New York: Harcourt, 1957.
  • -----. Patterns in Comparative Religion. New York: Sheed & Ward, 1958.
  • Friedman, Alice F. American Glamour and the Evolution of Modern Architecture. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.
  • Garza, Jennifer. "Hospitals Rethink Spiritual Spaces, Create Meditation Rooms." The Sacramento Bee, May 13, 2010.
  • Gerlach-Spriggs, Nancy, Richard Enoch Kaufman, and Sam Bass Warner Jr. Restorative Gardens: The Healing Landscape. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.
  • Gernant, Leonard. "Religion at a State-Owned Institution the Western Michigan College Story." Religious Education 52, 5 (1957): 375-383.
  • Gilliat-Ray, Sophie. "From 'Chapel' to 'Prayer Room:' The Production, Use, and Politics of Sacred Space in Public Institutions." Culture and Religion 6, 2 (2005): 287-308.
  • Grubiak, Margaret M. "Educating the Moral Scientist: The Chapels at IIT and MIT." Arris 17 (2007): 1-14.
  • -----. "Reassessing Yale's Cathedral Orgy." Winterthur Portfolio 43, 2/3 (2009): 159- 84.
  • -----. "The Campus Chapel: A Brief History." Faith & Form XLV, 1 (2012): 6-8.
  • -----. "The Danforth Chapel Program on the Public American Campus." Buildings & Landscapes: Journal of the Vernacular Architecture Forum 19, 2 (2012).
  • -----. White Elephants on Campus: The Decline of the University Chapel in America, 1920-1960. Notre Dame: Notre Dame Press, 2014.
  • Hejduk, Renata, and Jim Williamson. The Religious Imagination in Modern and Contemporary Architecture New York: Routledge, 2011.
  • Heskins, Georgiana, and Imrana Ghumra. "The Story of a Hospital Prayer Room." Interreligious Insight, April (2005).
  • Hewson, Chris and Ralf Brand. “The Struggle to Belong: Dealing with Diversity in 21st Century Urban Settings.” Paper presented at the International RC21 Conference, 2011.
  • Hurdle, Jon. "Synagogue Restored in Historic Philadelphia Prison." New York Times, March 28, 2009.
  • Jacobsen, Douglas, and Rhona Hustedt Jacobsen. No Longer Invisible: Religion in University Education. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
  • Johnson, Akilah. "Chapel services test school's values." Boston Globe, February 24, 2014, B01-B03.
  • Johnson, Karla. "The Multi-Faith Center: An Important Campus Facility." Planning for Higher Education, forthcoming.
  • Karla Johnson & Peter Laurence (2012) Multi-Faith Religious Spaces on College and University Campuses, Religion & Education, 39:1, 48-63, DOI: 10.1080/15507394.2012.648579
  • Kazanjian, Victor. "Towards a Multi-Faith Community at Wellesley College." In Building the Interfaith Youth Movement: Beyond Dialogue to Action, edited by Patrice Brodeur and Eboo Patel, 109-124. Landham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield, 2006.
  • Kilgannon, Corey. “Where Thoughts Turn to Higher Things.” New York Times, 2005.
  • Klide, Jeanne Halgren, and James Brewer Stewart. Nature and Revelation: A History of Macalester College. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.
  • McDannell, Colleen. Material Christianity: Religion and Popular Culture in America. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1995.
  • Morgan, David, and Sally M. Promey. The Visual Culture of American Religions. Berkeley: University of California Press, 2001.
  • Nelson, Louis P. American Sanctuary: Understanding Sacred Spaces. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2006.
  • Neumann, Janice. "Hospitals Set Aside Space for Muslim Prayer Rooms; Patients, Families, Staff Seek Privacy for Rituals." The Washington Post, August 26, 2006, B07.
  • Parker, Stephen G. "Theorising ‘Sacred’ Space in Educational Contexts: A Case Study of Three English Midlands Sixth Forum Colleges." Journal of Beliefs & Values 30, 1 (2009): 29-39.
  • Putnam, Robert D. and David E. Campbell. American Grace: How Religion Divides and Unites Us. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2010.
  • Riess, Jana. “A Chapel for the 21st Century.” Wellesley, Fall 2008.
  • Schmalzbauer, John, and Kathleen Mahoney. Religion: A Comeback on Campus, in progress.
  • Smietana, Bob. “Fort Campbell Soldiers Eager for New Worship Space.” The Tennessean, 2011.
  • Taylor, Charles. A Secular Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2007.
  • Warner, Michael, Jonathan Vanantwerpen and Craig J. Calhoun. Varieties of Secularism in a Secular Age. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010.
  • Wright, Michael C. "Chaplaincy in Hospice and Hospital: Findings from a Survey in England and Wales." Palliative Medicine 15, (2001): 229-42.
  • Wuthnow, Robert. The Restructuring of American Religion: Society and Faith Since World War II. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1988.